Sunset Summary

The global deployment of cellular services will evolve over the next 5 to 15 years as carriers transition from 2G and 3G networks to 4G LTE and, eventually, 5G. This will necessitate a migration of deployed cellular handsets and impact current and future M2M and IoT devices as well. All customers deploying M2M and IoT devices must be careful to match their plans and expectations to this major change, taking into account the expected operational longevity of devices as well as where their devices and services are deployed. As mentioned above, we believe that adopting modular designs that allow easier change-out of radio modules or SIM cards may be essential to profitable operation and to allowing sales to grow even as technology changes.

Appendix: Spectrum-Efficiency

In his book, “3G, 4G and Beyond: Bringing Networks, Devices and the Web Together” published in 2013, Martin Sauter provides information on the spectrum-efficiency of generations of cellular networks – including GSM and CDMA – from 2G GSM to 4G LTE services using Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) antennas.

Based on Sauter’s work, Figure 1. Theoretical Maximum Spectrum Efficiency, shows the wireless spectrum-efficiency of various older and newer cellular technologies, in “bits/second/Hertz”.

Changing from 2G GPRS (even with a “more-than-usual” number of GSM time-slots) to a 4x4 MIMO antenna in LTE, provides 230 times improvement in spectrum-efficiency.

This allows carriers to support much higher throughput and many more smartphones and handsets in the same, expensive, wireless spectrum. Ultimately, all current deployed cellular spectrum using 2G and 3G will be converted to 4G LTE – and, eventually, 5G – and the process will start anew.

Figure 1. Theoretical Maximum Spectrum Efficiency

Detailed Sunset Information

  Sorted by Region, Country, and Carrier.

Region Country Carrier Technology Announced Sunset Probable Sunset Actual Sunset Notes
Africa Egypt Vodafone 3G UMTS   12/31/2020    
Africa Ghana Vodafone 3G UMTS   12/31/2020    
Africa Montenegro MTEL C.O.O. Podgorica 2G GSM   1/1/2025    
Asia Australia Telstra 3G UMTS   6/30/2024   https://www.telstra.com.au/business-enterprise/news-research/networks/announcements/3g-service-closure#
Asia Bangladesh Grameenphone 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Asia China China Mobile 3G UMTS   12/1/2020    
Asia Christmas Island Telstra Corporation Limited 3G   6/30/2024   https://www.telstra.com.au/business-enterprise/news-research/networks/announcements/3g-service-closure#
Asia Hong Kong China Mobile 2G GSM   12/1/2020    
Asia Hong Kong CSL Hong Kong 2G GSM   12/1/2020    
Asia Hong Kong Hong Kong Telecommunications 2G GSM   12/1/2020    
Asia Hong Kong Hutchison Telecom (HK) Ltd 2G GSM   12/1/2020    
Asia Hong Kong SmarTone Mobile Communications 2G GSM   12/1/2020    
Asia India Bharti Airtel Ltd 2G GSM   12/1/2023    
Asia Indonesia XL Axiata 2G GSM   12/1/2022    
Asia Korea, Republic of  KT Corporation 3G UMTS   12/1/2020 8/22/2019  
Asia Lao People's Democratic Republic Star Telecom 2G GSM   1/1/2022    
Asia Macau Hutchinson Telephone (Macau) Ltd 2G GSM        
Asia Macau SmarTone Mobile Communications (Macau) Ltd 2G GSM   12/1/2020    
Asia Malaysia Celcom Axiata Berhad 3GUMTS   12/31/2021    
Asia Malaysia DiGi Telecommunications Sdn Bhd 2G GSM   12/31/2024    
Asia Malaysia DiGi Telecommunications Sdn Bhd 3GUMTS   12/31/2021    
Asia Malaysia Maxis Broadband 3GUMTS   12/31/2021    
Asia Myanmar Telenor Myanmar Limited 2G GSM   12/31/2022    
Asia New Zealand Vodafone New Zealand 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Asia Thailand dtac TRiNet Co. 2G GSM   12/31/2021    
Asia Tibet China Mobile 3G UMTS   12/1/2020    
Asia Viet Nam Hanoi Telecom 2G GSM   1/1/2022    
Asia Viet Nam Vietel Corporation 2G GSM   1/1/2022    
Asia Viet Nam VinaPhone International 2G GSM   1/1/2022    
Central America Haiti NATCOM 2G GSM   1/2/2022    
Europe Aland Islands (Finland TeliaSonera Finland Oyj 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Albania Vodafone Albania 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Azores (Portugal) Vodafone Portugal 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Canary Islands (Spain) Vodafone - Spain 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Ceuta (Spain) Vodafone - Spain 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Czech Republic T-Mobile 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Czech Republic T-Mobile 3G UMTS   11/30/2021    
Europe Czech Republic Vodafone Czech 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Czech Republic Vodafone Czech 3G UMTS   3/31/2021    
Europe Denmark Telenor 3G UMTS   4/1/2021    
Europe Denmark Telenor A/S 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Denmark Telia  2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Denmark Telia  3G UMTS   12/31/2025    
Europe Estonia Telia Eesti AS 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Finland Elisa Corporation 3G UMTS   12/31/2023    
Europe Finland Telia Sonera Finland 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Finland   DNA Ltd 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Germany Telefonica O2 3G UMTS   12/31/2021    
Europe Germany Telekom Deutschland GmbH 3GUMTS 6/30/2021     https://www.telekom.com/en/media/media-information/archive/bye-bye-3g-now-lte-is-coming-for-everyone-608220   
Europe Germany Vodafone GmbH, Germany 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Germany Vodafone GmbH, Germany 3G UMTS   6/30/2021    
Europe Greece Vodafone Panafon 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Hungary Vodafone Hungary 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Ibiza Vodafone - Spain 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Ireland Huthison 3G Ireland Limited 2G GSM   1/10/2025    
Europe Ireland O2 Communications/Telefonica 2G GSM   1/10/2025    
Europe Ireland Vodafone Ireland 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Italy Vodafone Italia S.p.A 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Italy Vodafone Italia S.p.A 3G UMTS   2/28/2021    
Europe Kreta (Greece) Cosmote 3G UMTS   12/31/2021 1/1/2021  
Europe Kreta (Greece) Vodafone-Panafon 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Liechtenstein Swisscom 2G GSM 1/1/2021     https://www.swisscom.ch/en/about/network/5g/2g-phase-out.html 
Europe Lithuania Telia Lietuva AB 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Madeira (Portugal) Vodafone Portugal 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Mallorca (Spain) Vodafone Spain 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Melilla (Spain) Vodafone Spain 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Menorca (Spain) Vodafone Spain 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Netherlands KPN 3G GSM 1/1/2022 1/1/2022   https://www.telegeography.com/products/commsupdate/articles/2018/07/27/kpn-shutting-3g-by-january-2022/
Europe Netherlands T-Mobile 2G GSM 6/1/2021 6/1/2021   https://www.t-mobile.nl/2g-uitzetten
Europe Netherlands Vodafone 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Northern Ireland EE Ltd 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Northern Ireland Vodafone UK 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Norway Telenor Norway 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Norway Telenor Norway 3G UMTS   12/31/2021    
Europe Norway Telia Norge AS 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Norway Telia Norge AS 3G UMTS   12/31/2021   https://www.teliacompany.com/en/news/news-articles/2g-and-3g-networks-to-retire--norway-first-out/ 
Europe Portugal Vodafone Portugal 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Rhodos (Greece) Cosmote 3G UMTS   12/31/2021    
Europe Rhodos (Greece) Vodafone-Panafon 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Romania Vodafone Romania 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe San Marino Vodafone Italia  2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe San Marino Vodafone Italia  3G UMTS   2/28/2021    
Europe Sardinia (Italy) Vodafone Italia  3G UMTS   2/28/2021    
Europe Scotland EE Ltd 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Scotland Vodafone UK 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Sicilia (Italy) Vodafone Italia  3G UMTS   2/28/2021    
Europe Spain Vodafone Spain 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands Telenor Norway 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands Telenor Norway 3G UMTS   12/31/2021    
Europe Sweden Tele 2 AB 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Sweden Telenor Sverige 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Sweden TeliaSonera Mobile 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Switzerland Sunrise UPC GmbH 2G GSM 12/31/2020 12/31/2022   http://networkcommunicationsnews.co.uk/news/lights-time-2g/
Europe Switzerland Swisscom 2G GSM 12/31/2020 1/1/2021   https://www.swisscom.ch/en/about/company/portrait/network/2g-phase-out.html
Europe UK EE 2G GSM   12/31/2025   http://www.eetimes.com/author.asp?doc_id=1331112&page_number=2; https://www.lightreading.com/mobile/3g-hspa/bt-aims-to-switch-off-3g-by-2022/d/d-id/743940 
Europe UK Vodafone UK 2G GSM   12/31/2025   http://www.eetimes.com/author.asp?doc_id=1331112&page_number=2; https://www.lightreading.com/mobile/3g-hspa/bt-aims-to-switch-off-3g-by-2022/d/d-id/743940 
Europe Vatican City Vodafone Italia S.p.A 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Vatican City Vodafone Italia S.p.A 3G UMTS   2/28/2021    
Europe Wales EE Ltd 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Europe Wales Vodafone UK 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Middle East Jordan Umniah Mobile 2G GSM   4/1/2021    
Middle East Malta Epic Communications 2G GSM 12/31/2025      
Middle East Pakistan Telenor Pakistan 2G GSM   12/31/2025    
Middle East Saudi Arabia Saudi Telecom 3G UMTS   12/31/2022    
Middle East UAE Emerates Integrated (du) 2G GSM   12/31 2022    
Middle East UAE Etisalat 2G GSM   12/31/2022 4/30/2019  
North America Canada Rogers 2G GSM   12/1/2021 3/31/2019 https://www.rogers.com/business/support/iot-network-updates#iot1-2 
Rogers is phasing out legacy technologies.  They've extended the 1900MHz network sunset date to June 7th to provide more time to support  customer transitions. After June 7th, 2021 they will no longer offer 1900 MHz on their 2G and 3G networks. This means 2G and 3G IoT devices using 1900 MHz will not work after this date.  After December 31, 2021 IoT devices will no longer be supported on the 2G network across the remaining 850 MHz frequency band. This means 2G IoT devices will no longer be supported across any frequency bands on the 2G network.  
North America Canada Rogers 3G UMTS   12/1/2021 3/31/2019 https://www.rogers.com/business/support/iot-network-updates#iot1-2 
Rogers is phasing out legacy technologies.  They've extended the 1900MHz network sunset date to June 7th to provide more time to support  customer transitions. After June 7th, 2021 they will no longer offer 1900 MHz on their 2G and 3G networks. This means 2G and 3G IoT devices using 1900 MHz will not work after this date.  After December 31, 2021 IoT devices will no longer be supported on the 2G network across the remaining 850 MHz frequency band. This means 2G IoT devices will no longer be supported across any frequency bands on the 2G network.  
North America Mexico AT&T / IUSACEL 2G GSM     1/1/2021 https://www.bnamericas.com/en/news/ict/telefonica-mexico-at-t-to-switch-off-2g-in-2019
North America Mexico Telefonica/Pegaso 2G GSM   1/1/2021    
North America Puerto Rico AT&T Mobility 3G UMTS   2/22/2022    
North America USA AT&T 3G UMTS Early 2022 2/22/2022   As of 2019-06-30, customers may not activate new devices that are intended to operate exclusively on 3G on the AT&T network.
https://www.att.com/esupport/article.html#!/wireless/KM1324171?gsi=urpt2a
North America USA Chat Mobility 2G GSM   12/10/2020   Parts of Iowa
North America USA SunCom Wireless 3G UMTS   12/31/2020    
North America USA T-Mobile (includes Puerto Rico) 2G GSM   12/31/2022   Based on spectrum demand in any given area, T-Mobile may reduce  2G capacity/coverage at an earlier date than indicated. 
North America USA T-Mobile (includes Puerto Rico) 3G UMTS   10/1/2021   Based on spectrum demand in any given area, T-Mobile may reduce  3G capacity/coverage at an earlier date than indicated. 
North America USA T-Mobile/Sprint 2G 1xRTT   1/1/2022   T-Mobile is expected to shut down the Sprint CDMA Network on or around January 1, 2022, to make way for its 5G network.   Between now and the time that the Sprint CDMA Network is fully decommissioned, capacity and coverage of the Sprint CDMA Network is expected to change.  Devices in these configurations will be impacted: 
• CDMA-only Devices or dual-mode CDMA/LTE Devices that do not support Voice over LTE (VoLTE):  If End Users have CDMA-only capable devices, or a device that does not support VoLTE, an upgrade or replacement will be necessary.    
• Data only CDMA/LTE–capable Devices and data only Single-Mode LTE Devices:  For data-only CDMA/LTE-capable devices, LTE data service will continue to function if LTE is enabled in the device settings.  For data-only Single-Mode LTE devices, LTE data service will continue to function as well while that network remains operational. 
• VoLTE-capable CDMA/LTE-capable Devices:  These devices will lose CDMA capability but LTE data service will continue to function if LTE is enabled in the device settings and VoLTE is enabled.
• CDMA-only Devices or Devices that cannot support VoLTE will not be supported for activation after January 1, 2021.
North America USA T-Mobile/Sprint 3G EV-DO   1/1/2022   T-Mobile is expected to shut down the Sprint CDMA Network on or around January 1, 2022, to make way for its 5G network.   Between now and the time that the Sprint CDMA Network is fully decommissioned, capacity and coverage of the Sprint CDMA Network is expected to change.  Devices in these configurations will be impacted: 
• CDMA-only Devices or dual-mode CDMA/LTE Devices that do not support Voice over LTE (VoLTE):  If End Users have CDMA-only capable devices, or a device that does not support VoLTE, an upgrade or replacement will be necessary.    
• Data only CDMA/LTE–capable Devices and data only Single-Mode LTE Devices:  For data-only CDMA/LTE-capable devices, LTE data service will continue to function if LTE is enabled in the device settings.  For data-only Single-Mode LTE devices, LTE data service will continue to function as well while that network remains operational. 
• VoLTE-capable CDMA/LTE-capable Devices:  These devices will lose CDMA capability but LTE data service will continue to function if LTE is enabled in the device settings and VoLTE is enabled.
• CDMA-only Devices or Devices that cannot support VoLTE will not be supported for activation after January 1, 2021.
North America USA Verizon 2G 1xRTT 12/31/2020 12/31/2020 --- Service available "as is" after sunset date with no support.  https://www.verizonwireless.com/support/knowledge-base-218813/
North America USA Verizon 3G EV-DO 12/31/2020 12/31/2020   Service available "as is" after sunset date with no support.  https://www.verizonwireless.com/support/knowledge-base-218813/
North America Virgin Islands (US) AT&T Mobility 2G GSM   2/22/2022    
  Czech Republic O2 Czech Republic a.s. 3G UMTS   5/31/2021    
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